The July in Sol-Gel (and Materials Chemistry) History

Richard Buckminster Fuller
(Born 12 July 1895): American engineer and inventor who developed the geodesic dome and after whom the C 60 molecule (Buckminster fullerene) was named. He was particularly interested in high strength-to-weight designs (see R. Buckminster Fuller, 1895 – 1983 | The Buckminster Fuller Institute (, Buckminsterfullerene – Wikipedia and

John B. Goodenough
(Born 25 July 1922): German-born American scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2019 for his work leading to the development of the rechargeable lithium ion battery. He demonstrate that by using lithium cobalt oxide as a cathode material, high stored energy densities could be obtained when using anodes other than metallic lithium (see, and

Andreas Libavius
(Died 25 July 1616, born c. 1550): German scholar recognised for writing one of the first systematic chemistry textbooks, which was entitled “Alchymia”. His important chemical studies include methods for the preparation of ammonium sulfate, antimony sulfide, hydrochloric acid, and tin tetrachloride (see Andreas Libavius | German chemist and physician | Britannica, and

Sossina M. Haile
(Born 28 July 1966): Ethiopian-American chemist, who created the first solid-acid fuel cell in the 1990s. A Startup known as “Superprotonic” was established to commercialise the technology by two of her graduate students. Today, this technology is being commercialised by SAFCELL Inc (see Solid Acid Fuel Cells for the hydrogen economy | SAFCell, and