The June in Sol-Gel (and Materials Chemistry) History

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (Born 1 June 1796):
French physicist and military scientist/engineer often described as the “Father of Thermodynamics”. His book entitled “Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire”, which he published in 1824 when only 27 years of age, laid the foundations for the new discipline of thermodynamics. His work attracted little attention during his lifetime, but formed the basis of later work that formalised the Second Law of Thermodynamics and defined the concept of entropy. Carnot’s intellectual achievements laid the foundations for many technological marvels that we now take for granted, such as the jet engine and the internal combustion engine (see and Nicolas_L%C3%A9onard_Sadi_Carnot).

Jorge Sabato (Born 4 June 1924):
Argentinian physicist, remembered as one of Argentina’s foremost technologists who played a key role in the development of materials science in Argentina. He became the Technology Manager of the CNEA (Argentina’s National Laboratory responsible for nuclear energy research and development) in 1968. He played a key role in formalising technology-transfer processes in Argentina and the formation of the Argentinian company INVAP was inspired by his ideas. Today, INVAP is one of the few Latin American companies capable of undertaking projects involving the design and construction of civilian nuclear reactors (both for power and research) and aerospace technology (see, Jorge Sabato, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Date of Death ( and Jorge_Alberto_S%C3%A1bato

Clara Helene Immerwahr (Born 21 June 1870):
German physical chemist, pacifist and women’s rights activist, who was the first woman to be awarded a doctorate in chemistry in Germany. As a woman, she was only allowed to attend university lectures as a guest, which required the support of the professor delivering the lecture and permission from the relevant Ministry (which required a good-conduct certificate, character reference, etc). She is credited with stating “It has always been my attitude that a life has only been worth living if one has made full use of all one’s abilities and tried to live out every kind of experience human life has to offer”. She took her own life in 1915, in protest at the development of gas warfare by scientists. As a role model for civic courage, her name is now strongly connected with the social and moral responsibility of scientists (see Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr (1870–1915): Life, Work and Legacy (, Clara Immerwahr | Jewish Women’s Archive ( and