The January in Sol-Gel (and Materials Chemistry) History

Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen
(Born 9 January 1868): Danish chemist who introduced the concept of pH as a simple approach for expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions during his work with proteins at the Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen. His paper introducing the pH scale described two methods for measuring pH – one involving the use of electrodes and one based on coloured indicators (see Portal:History_of_science/Selected_anniversaries/January, B8rensen, and

Katharine Burr Blodgett
(Born 10 January 1898): American physicist and chemist who extended Langmuir’s earlier work by developing a technique for spreading monomolecular layers onto glass or metal substrates. The apparatus which she used for this work is now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Blodgett developed antireflective coatings involving the deposition of 44 molecular layers of barium stearate on glass substrates, which rendered them over 99 % transmissive. Her “invisible glass” was subsequently used in projectors and cameras. She was awarded the Garvan Medal by the American Chemical Society in 1951 (see wiki/Katharine_Burr_Blodgett, January, and

Irving Langmuir
(Born 31 January 1881): American physical chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1932 for his work on molecular films on solid and liquid surfaces. In addition to his many achievements in colloid chemistry, biochemistry, adsorption and catalysis, he also developed an atomic-hydrogen welding torch capable of achieving temperatures as high as 3000 o C (see Irving Langmuir – Biographical –, https:// , and Selected_anniversaries/January).

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