Bioinspired In Vitro Brain Vasculature Model for Nanomedicine Testing Based on Decellularized Spinach Leaves

Animal testing is often criticized due to ethical issues and complicated translation of the results obtained to the clinical stage of drug development. Existing alternative models for nanopharmaceutical testing still have many limitations and do not significantly decrease the number of animals used. We propose a simple, bioinspired in vitro model for nanopharmaceutical drug testing based on the decellularized spinach leaf’s vasculature.