This newcomer in the series is addressing a very topical issue related to the synthesis of 1D nanomaterials, namely nanotubes and nanorods, made of oxides. This morphology, popularized after the pioneer studies on carbon counterparts, is very interesting as the diversity of possible oxides leads to many potential applications. After a general introduction to the topic, two focused chapters follow, the first one dealing with the use of sol-gel processes for the production of such nanostructures and the second with equivalent content but concerning the use of hydrothermal method. Written by leading scientists from the Ilie Murguescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, in Bucharest, Romania, this short textbook nicely provides state of the art information on this emerging topic. Once again, the sol-gel process appears to be a very efficient and versatile way of producing materials allowing one to easily vary the composition and morphology while keeping a relatively low cost compared to other techniques.